O u t p a t i e n t    E l e c t r i c    S t i m u l a t i o n

In addition to Magnetic (rTMS), there are other brain stimulation options: 

1   tACS (including CES) = transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation

(or Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation) 

2   tDCS = transcranial Direct Current Stimulation 

3   tTNS = transcutaneous Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation 

4  tVNS = Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation

5  Light = Light Therapy Stimulation

6  TENS = Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation

 

These completely different from "shock" therapy (ECT). and there are 3 differences (advantages) vs ECT:

1) ECT uses 450 volts at 1 amp current, these use about .002 amps (2 milliamps) (500 times less current)

2) no anesthesia is needed, patients are awake and drive to and from appointments

3) These may Improve Memory (ECT can impair memory)

1) transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS)

including Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES)

Is a method of brain stimulation which has been used since the 1950s, and was FDA approved for Depression, Anxiety, Pain & Insomnia in the Early 1970s.*

*Class III for the indication of “insomnia, depression, and anxiety” through a “pre-amendment” regulatory pathway (510[k]), which required only demonstration of substantial equivalence to legally marketed devices predating FDA regulation)Class III for the indication of “insomnia, depression, and anxiety” through a “pre-amendment” regulatory pathway (510[k]), which required only demonstration of substantial equivalence to legally marketed devices predating FDA regulation)

Pictured above are Fisher-Wallace (on the left) and CES-Ultra (on the right), click on them to go to the companies webSites. There is also a device called Alpha-Stim, we have not used the Alpha-Stim unit, but have been told by reliable sources that effectiveness has not been seen with it. No clear advantages have been demonstrated with the expensive devices. I have seen beneficial effects from the two above devices and another physician that I know said that about 70% of patients get significant benefit (50-100% reduction of symptoms).

2) transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)     is not cleared in the US but in the European Union is approved for Fibromyalgia and Migraine also...

1) it is widely used  by video gamers and others who seek to optimize brain function (& Their KDR) for more info click here

2) is being investigated by the military to reduce learning time in training for more info click here or here

3) has a large amount of scientific investigation and interest (> 6,000 articles on MedLine) to see all, click here

4) has been studied for mood disorders, schizophrenia, OCD, stroke, head trauma, and weight loss. It is too soon to know whether it is effective.

5) can be done with inexpensive devices purchased on the internet or more expensive devices designed for iontophoresis (eg ActivaDose or Chattanooga)

6) the exact placement location of the electrodes (montage) is very important for what part of the brain is stimulated or inhibited

 

tdcs web2.png

Click on the picture above to read the outstanding New Yorker article "Electrified" Adventures in transcranial direct-current stimulation. BY ELIF BATUMAN

 

A medLine search for "tDCS" resulted in 3886 scientific publications (03/23/2018). These describe studies of tDCS for these and other uses:

Auditory Hallucinations (Koops 2015)

Autism (D'Urso 2015)

Cerebral Palsy (Duarte Nde 2014, D'Urso 2014, Grecco 2013)

Cognitive Enhancement (Kantak 2015, Parasuraman 2014, Bennabi 2014, Martin 2014, Lally 2013)

Dementia (Elder 2015, Meinzer 2015, Sandrini 2014, Mahdavi 2014, Hansen 2014, Khedr 2014, Babiloni 2014, Boggio 2009)

Depression (Brunoni 2015, Shiozawa 2015, Palm 2015, Gálvez 2015, Dell'Osso 2014, Vigod 2014, Ho 2014, Player 2014, Dell'Osso 2014, Brunoni 2014, Valiengo 2013, Alonzo 2013, Martin 2013, Berlim 2013, Blumberger 2012, Loo 2012, Murphy 2009)

Eating Disorders (Widdows 2014)

Fibromyalgia (Fagerlund 2015, Marlow 2013, Valle 2009, Fregni 2006)

Functional Neurological Disorders (McWhirter 2015)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (Shiozawa 2014)

Migraine (DaSilva 2015) 

MS Fatigue (Ferrucci 2014)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Senço 2015, Narayanaswamy 2015)

Pain (Concerto 2015, O'Neill 2015, O'Connell 2015, Boldt 2014, Boldt 2014, O'Connell 2014, Fagerlund 2013, Moreno-Duarte 2014, Nizard 2012, Luedtke 2012, O'Connell 2012)

Chronic Low Back Pain (Luedtke 2015)

Myofascial Pain Syndrome (Choi 2014)

Neuropathic Pain (Mehta 2015, Razumov 2015, Nardone 2013)

Parkinson’s (Li 2015, Gajo 2015, Manenti 2014, Doruk 2014, Benninger 2010)

PTSD (Marin 2014, Wu 2008)

Schizophrenia (Mondino 2015, Praharaj 2015, Nieuwdorp 2015, Shenoy 2015, Shivakumar 2015, Jacks 2014, Miyamoto 2014, Jacks 2014, Hoy 2014, Andrade 2013, Nawani 2013, Brunelin 2013)

Stroke (Mortensen 2015, Gall 2015, Claflin 2015, Ang 2015, Marchina 2015, Pollock 2014, Gillick 2014, Di Pino 2014, Lüdemann-Podubecká 2014, Plow2014, Pollock 2014, Tahtis 2014, Plow 2013, Bradnam 2013, Dmochowski 2013, Ang 2012, Edwardson 2013, Kandel 2012, Takeuchi 2012, Butler 2013, Kim 2009)

Post Stroke Aphasia (Galletta 2015, Elsner 2015, Thiel, Khedr 2014, Manenti, 2015, Lee 2013, Elsner 2013)

Tinnitus (Pal 2015, Shekhawat 2015, Shekhawat 2014, Shekhawat 2015, Joos 2014, Vanneste 2014, Lee 2014, Elsner 2013, Shekhawat 2013, De Ridder 2012, Langguth 2012, Plewnia 2011, Vanneste 2010)

TMJ (Oliveira 2015)

Traumatic Brain Injury (Shin 2014, Leśniak 2014)

Sleep & Fatigue (in post-polio syndrome) (Acler 2013)

 

unlike tACS, there is no frequency, pulse width, pulse shape to adjust but there are different ways to position the electrodes (montages)

By positioning the electrodes differently, different effects may be achieved. The labels of these locations are derived from the 10-20 EEG system.

There are many sources to learn about different montages, the pictures above are from tDCSPlacements.com    click on the pictures or below to go there

If you want to buy a tDCS unit to use at home you can do it. I neither encourage nor discourage this. In general it is safe. There are many devices to choose from. They have high quality standards. The Chattanooga was smaller, more portable and had two outputs instead of one, but it is no longer available and was not as user friendly. But there is a well engineered tDCS device called "PriorMind".. It works extremely well and has circuitry which keeps the current constant even if the impedance varies. It turns on at 0.5mA and can be increased to 2.0mA. It does not turn off automatically so caution is needed to turn it off. www.foc.us is the most obvious and best choice for most people. They have complete systems that have everything you need. Having purchased and used almost every device on the market, I am most impressed with Foc.us. I order their products no matter what, because I have never been disappointed with them. But in the office I used the ActivaDose device for legal reasons because it has a legal status (FDA cleared for iontophoresis) whereas the Foc.us is technically a recreational device. 

3) Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (tTNS)

The device is cleared for both immediate relief of headaches and prevention. A prescription is needed, more information is on their site www.cefaly.com

Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation is also being actively investigated for other disorders including:

Seizures (Cook 2015, Soss 2015, Moseley 2014, Zare 2014, Pack 2013, DeGiorgio 2013, DeGiorgio 2009, DeGiorgio 2006, DeGiorgio 2003, Fanselow 2012, Pop 2011), 

Depression (Shiozawa 2015, Cook 2013, Schrader 2011), 

ADHD (McGough 2015)

Fibromyalgia (Shiozawa 2014)

PTSD (Trevizol 2015)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Trevizol 2015)

4) transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS)

is  a very new and exciting treatment for medical and psychiatric conditions.

Before transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS)
there was a Surgical Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS).
In 1997 the FDA cleared the surgical implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator (pacemaker) for the treatment of Seizures (epilepsy). Then it was cleared for depression in 2005 and for weight loss in 2015 

The non-surgical (transcutaneous) version takes advantage of the fact that a small area of skin on the outer ear is innervated by the vagus nerve. Gentle stimulation of that skin has been shown to produce similar fMRI brain activity changes  (Kraus 2007, Dietrich 2008) as the surgical version.

2017 saw two tVNS devices cleared for use in the US.  One for headaches (GammaCore)  and one for opiate withdrawal (Bridge NSS-2). 

In Europe three tVNS devices have been cleared for use -  for Epilepsy (seizures) in 2010 and Pain in 2012 (CerboMed-Nemos), another device for headaches (GammaCore) and a third device for ringing in the ears - tinnitus  (SaluStim).

GammaCore is also approved for the acute and prophylactic treatment of primary headaches (cluster headache, migraine, hemicrania continua), and reactive airway disease (asthma, exercise- induced bronchospasm, COPD), as well as adjunctive therapy for epilepsy prevention and reducing the symptoms of certain anxiety/depression conditions (eg, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive- compulsive disorder), gastric mobility disorders, and irritable bowel syndrome

OTHER  USES  of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS):

It is used off label and being investigated (and appears to be effective and safe) for many conditions including:

CARDIAC: Atrial Fibrillation, Heart Failure & MI (heart attack)

HEADACHE: Cluster & Migraine

DEPRESSION

PAIN

TINNITUS (Ringing in the Ears)

STROKE

In our experience, it is effective for Anxiety

(Generalized Anxiety, Panic Disorder and Social Anxiety) and Insomnia.

 

 REFERENCES

Heart

1. Atrial Fibrillation

Chen 2015 Low level tragus nerve stimulation is a non- invasive approach for anti-atrial fibrillation via preventing the loss of connexins

Kapa 2015 Looking Beyond the Ablation Shore, Treating Atrial Fibrillation From Afar

Kreuzer 2012 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation- Retrospective Assessment of Cardiac Safety in a Pilot Study

Li, Shu 2015 2015 Low level non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation- a novel feasible therapeutic approach for atrial fibrillation.

Stavrakis 2015 Low-level transcutaneous electrical vagus nerve stimulation suppresses atrial fibrillation.

Yu 2013 Low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve- a noninvasive approach to treat the initial phase of atrial fibrillation.

 2. Heart Failure

Fan 2010 Transvenous Vagus Nerve Stimulation/ A Potential Heart Failure Therapy Is Feasible In Humans

Wang 2014 Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of auricular branch of vagus nerve- A noninvasive therapeutic approach for post-ischemic heart failure

Wang 2015 Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation for heart failure- Was it practical or just a stunt?

 3. Heart Attack (myocardial infarction)

Wang 2014 Chronic Intermittent Low-Level Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation of Auricular Branch of Vagus Nerve Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling in Conscious Dogs With Healed Myocardial Infarction

Wang 2014 Low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of vagus nerve ameliorates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transforming growth factor β1.

Wang 2015 Unilateral low-level transcutaneous electrical vagus nerve stimulation- A novel noninvasive treatment for myocardial infarction.

STROKE

Ay 2015 The effect of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on inflammatory markers in acute stroke

Ay 2016 Transcutaneous Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Injury in Rats

Cai 2014 Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Ischemic Stroke- Old Wine in a New Bottle

Capone 2017 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Combined with Robotic Rehabilitation Improves Upper Limb Function after Stroke

Redgrave 2018 Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Concurrent Upper Limb Repetitive Task Practice for Poststroke Motor Recovery- A Pilot Study

Ay 2015 Electrical Stimulation of the Vagus Nerve Dermatome in the External Ear is Protective in Rat Cerebral Ischemia

DEPRESSION

Fang 2015 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Default Mode Network in Major Depressive Disorder

Fang 2016 Early cortical biomarkers of longitudinal transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment success in depression 

Fang 2017 Early cortical biomarkers of longitudinal transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment success in depression 

Hein 2013 Auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in depressed patients- a randomized controlled pilot study.

Kong 2018 Treating Depression with transcutaneous Auricular vagus Nerve stimulation- state of the Art and Future Perspectives 

Li 2018 The effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on treatment-resistant depression monitored by resting-state fMRI and MRS- The first case report 

Li, Sha 2014 Therapeutic Effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Depressive-Like Behavior, Hyperglycemia and Insulin Receptor Expression in Zucker Fatty Rats

Li, Sha 2014 Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Triggers Melatonin Secretion and Is Antidepressive in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

Liu 2016 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation modulates amygdala functional connectivity in patients with depression

Polak 2013 Vagus somatosensory evoked potentials are delayed in Alzheimer’s disease, but not in major depression

Rong 2012 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression- a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial.

Rong 2016 Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on major depressive disorder- a nonrandomized controlled pilot study

Trevizol 2015 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) protocol for the treatment of major depressive disorder/ A case study assessing the auricular branch of the vagus nerve

Trevizol 2016 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) for Major Depressive Disorder- an Open Label Proof-of-Concept Trial 

Tu 2018 A distinct biomarker of continuous transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment in major depressive disorder 

Wang 2017 Frequency-dependent functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens during continuous transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in major depressive disorder 

Yu 2016 Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation/ A Novel Non-Invasive Non-Pharmacologic Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder

please note, in our clinic we have not seen antidepressant effects of tVNS, we do not know why

EPILEPSY (Seizure disorders)

Aihua 2014 A controlled trial of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

Barbella 2018 Transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS)- An adjunctive treatment option for refractory epilepsy

Bauer 2016 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) for Treatment of Drug-Resistant Epilepsy- A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial (cMPsE02)

DeGiorgio 2013 Neurostimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

Fischenich 2010 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation- A treatment option in drug resistant epilepsy? (Slides)

He 2009 A new concept of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for epileptic seizure

He 2013 Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation as a complementary therapy for pediatric epilepsy- a pilot trial

He 2013 The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats

He 2015 Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation for pediatric epilepsy- study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Liu 2018 Efficacy and Safety of Treatment with Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation in 17 Patients with Refractory Epilepsy Evaluated by Electroencephalogram

Rong 2015 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy- a randomized controlled trial.

Song 2018 A retrospective study of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for poststroke epilepsy

Stefan 2011 First experiences with transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t"VNS) in epilepsy treatment

Stefan 2012 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t- VNS) in pharmacoresistant epilepsies/ A proof of concept trial Epilepsia

Yuen 2017 Can natural ways to stimulate the vagus nerve improve seizure control?

HEADACHE

  1. Cluster

Barbanti 2015 Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for acute treatment of high-frequency and chronic migraine- an open-label study. 

Garcia 2015 Trigeminal sensory nucleus connectivity is modulated by respiratory-gated auricular vagus nerve stimulation in migraine patients

Gaul 2011 Cluster Headache Clinical Features and Therapeutic Options

Gaul 2014 EHMTI-0362. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation with gammacore for prevention and acute treatment of chronic cluster headache- report from the extension phase of the preva study

Gaul 2015 Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA)- A randomised controlled study

Gaul 2017 Effects of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation on attack frequency over time and expanded response rates in patients with chronic cluster headache: a post hoc analysis of the randomised, controlled PREVA study.

Holle-Lee 2014 Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation in the management of cluster headache/ clinical evidence and practical experience

Kinfe 2013 Partial Response of Intractable Cluster-Tic Syndrome Treated by Cervical non-invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation 

Lavano 2015 Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Cluster Headache

Nesbitt 2015 Initial use of a novel noninvasive vagus nerve stimulator for cluster headache treatment

2. Migraine

Goadsby 2014 Effect of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation on acute migraine- An open-label pilot study 

Grimsrud 2018 Emerging Treatments in Episodic Migraine 

Kinfe 2015 Cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) for preventive and acute treatment of episodic and chronic migraine and migraine-associated sleep disturbance- a prospective observational cohort study. 

Schoenen 2016 Noninvasive neurostimulation methods for migraine therapy/ The available evidence

Silberstein 2016 Chronic migraine headache prevention with noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation The EVENT study

Straube 2015 Treatment of chronic migraine with transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagal nerve (auricular t-VNS)- a randomized, monocentric clinical trial

3. Other or not specified headaches

Jurgens 2013 Pearls and pitfalls- neurostimulation in headache

h Lambru 2014 Peripheral neurostimulation in primary headaches

Magis 2012 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) for headache prophylaxis/ initial experience

h Martelletti 2013 Neuromodulation of chronic headaches- position statement from the European Headache Federation

Zhu 2016 Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders

Yuan 2015 Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Headache 

Zhu 2016 Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders

TINNITUS (Ringing in the ears)

Hyvarinen 2014 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Tinnitus-Related Beta- and Gamma-Band Activity (EEG)

Kreuzer 2014 Feasibility, Safety and Efficacy of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Tinnitus- An Open Pilot Study

Kreuzer 2014 Feasibility, Safety and Efficacy of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Tinnitus- An Open Pilot Study

Lehtimaki 2013 Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in tinnitus- a pilot study.

Peter 2018 Neuromodulation for tinnitus treatment/ an overview of invasive and non-invasive techniques

Shim Feasibility and Safety of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paired with Notched Music Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

30Hz SUK 2018 Characteristics of Stimulus Intensity in Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Tinnitus

Yakunina 2018 BOLD fMRI effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in patients with chronic tinnitus

How transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Works (Mechanism of Action)

1) stimulating the skin of the ear, 

2) stimulates the Auricular Branch of the Vagus Nerve

3) the stimulation goes to a nucleus (cluster of nerve cells) called the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

4) the NTS receives information from the body (heart, lungs, intestines, immune system) and

5) sends output to several structures including the Locus coeruleus and indirectly to the Dorsal raphe nucleus.

6) Locus Ceruleus is the brain's primary source of norepinephrine (aka noradrenaline) 

7) Dorsal Raphe nucleus is the brain's primary source of serotonin

8) so those two structures influence alertness/energy (norepinephrine) and confidence (serotonin)

9) those two then send those chemicals (neurotransmitters) to the whole brain, especially parts for thinking and feeling.  Serotonin (Calm Confidence) & Norepinephrine (Relaxed Energy) - are sent more to the thinking, deliberate, newer Prefrontal Cortex, and less to the Amygdala (Hippocampus and Anterior Thalamus). This reduces anxiety and panic (fight or flight response).

 

• How Does tVNS Work?

 

Fig. 6: The vagus nerve sends afferents to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which in turn projects to the locus coeruleus .... Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) facilitates the excitatory pathway of neurons in the locus coeruleus more than the inhibitory one. The locus coeruleus then modifies the firing rate of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Therefore, VNS is believed to change the locus coeruleus activity, and then indirectly the serotoninergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. It leads to a change of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) transmission. (after Manta 2009 Enhancement of the Function of rat serotonin and norepinephrine neurons by sustained vagus nerve stimulation)

••How Does tVNS Work?

2) BETTER RELATIONSHIP WITH SELF & LESS RUMINATION- Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation increases the functional connectivity (the way parts of the brain connect and communicate) of the default mode network (DMN) structures. The DMN is a set of brain areas that are more active when you are not focused on outside things or activities, awake and at rest, like when the mind wanders. The DMN is related to our relationship with ourself, our thoughts about our feelings, and emotion control (Connolly 2013, Berman 2011 & Nejad 2013). People who are depressed tend to have more self-focus and sensitivity to stress (Rodriguez 2012). Part of the DMN (medial) is activated during focus on self and part (Lateral) is activated when the focus is on others. tVNS shifts the focus (Fang 2015) "The Functional Connectivity between the DMN and anterior insula and parahippocampus decreased; the FC between the DMN and precuneus and orbital prefrontal cortex increased" (see below).  

Figure 3. Yellow indicates brain regions that showed significant functional connectivity increase with default mode network in the transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation group as compared with sham transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation. Blue indicates brain regions whose default mode network functional connectivity changes (posttreatment minus pretreatment) were negatively correlated with the corresponding Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score changes across all subjects. L, left; OPFC, orbital prefrontal cortex; Precu, precuneus; rACC, rostral anterior cingulate cortex. (Fang 2016 transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation Modulates Default Mode Network in Major Depressive Disorder. )

 

3) LESS STRESS MORE RELAXATION - Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation may improve heart rate variability (Clancy 2014, Leeds, UK), reduce sympathetic tone (adrenalin, fight or flight), and increase parasympathetic tone (rest, digest, attend and befriend). Vagus (parasympathetic) activity is related to better health and outcomes in many conditions including heart disease, high blood pressure, sleep apnea and obesity.

Does Vagus Nerve Stimulation Work For Medical Conditions Also?

Surgical Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy (Cyberonics) was FDA cleared in 1997. Since then, much has been learned.

Kevin Tracey, MD, a surgeon and scientist in Long Island, New York has used this surgically implanted neuro-pacemaker for other conditions beyond epilepsy, and investigated the remarkable health benefits of vagal nerve stimulation. In 2003 he and colleagues published the landmark paper "The Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway: A Missing Link in Neuroimmunomodulation" In March of 2015, Scientific American devoted an entire special issue to this topic, with superb illustrations and text in plain language. Most of what he discusses also applies to tVNS but without the cost and complications of surgery.

Light Therapy

Light therapy has long been used sucessfully for treatment of seasonal affective disorder (Winter Blues). Major depression and PMD also respond well. Until recently, large boxes (with special intensity and frequencies) were used

Light therapy boxes can be found on EBay or Amazon

New wearable light therapy devices are available. So instead of sitting in front of a stationary light, one can wear it and walk around doing things. for more info click the pic above